This section is similar to the Interactive Fiction Theory one, except that computer games in general, and not just adventure games, are discussed.
There haven't been many books written about the art of computer game design. Richard Rouse III has attempted to fill that need with a new book on the subject. How good is it? Pretty good, it turns out.
Art of Computer Game Design
Chris Crawford's seminal book, available on the web and as a PDF.
I grew up playing Greg's games, including Starship and Web (the only three-player board game I've played that worked) and Paranoia. Now read some of his thoughts on design.
Gamasutra is a magazine dedicated to game design, and has a lot of good articles about said topic. You'll have to register with them to read any of the articles, but the registration is free.
Have No Words and I Must Design
Of Greg Costikyan's writings, this is the one I would like to force all adventure game authors to read.
Advice about design and some musings on aspects of gaming.
The Journal of Computer Game
Chris Crawford, of Balance of Power fame, has created an archive of old issues of his game design magazine. Though not about adventures (a genre he loathes), the journal has a lot of good information about game design.
Richard Rouse, who has designed a number of games and written the book Game Design: Theory and Practice, has collected his various writings about game design.